Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae. With a few exceptions, alders are deciduous, and the leaves are alternate, simple, and serrated. The flowers are catkins with elongate male catkins on the same plant as shorter female catkins, often before leaves appear; they are mainly wind-pollinated, but also visited by bees to a small extent.
Birch is a broadleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams, and is closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. They are typically rather short-lived pioneer species widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in northern temperate and boreal climates. This tree is sometimes called The Watchful Tree because of eye-like impressions on the bark.
Prunus padus, known as Bird Cherry or Hackberry, is a species of cherry, native to northern Europe and northern Asia. It is a deciduous small tree or large shrub, 8–16 m tall, which grows south of the Arctic Circle in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia and Ukraine. There are also some trees in Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal and in the Balkans. It is the type species of the subgenus Padus, which have flowers in racemes.
Crann silíní fiáin
The Cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). The cherry fruits of commerce are usually obtained from a limited number of species such as cultivars of the sweet cherry, Prunus avium. The name "cherry" also refers to the cherry tree, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry", "cherry blossom", etc. Wild Cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside of cultivation, although Prunus avium is often refered to specifically by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles.
The hazels (Corylus) are a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The genus is usually placed in the birch family Betulaceae, though some botanists split the hazels (with the hornbeams and allied genera) into a separate family Corylaceae. The fruit of the hazel is the hazelnut.
Quercus robur is commonly known as the English oak or pedunculate oak or French oak. It is native to most of Europe, and to Anatolia to the Caucasus, and also to parts of North Africa. Quercus robur is planted for forestry, and produces a long-lasting and durable heartwood, much in demand for interior and furniture work.
Quercus petraea (syn. Quercus sessiliflora), the sessile oak, also known as the Cornish oak or Durmast oak, is a species of oak tree native to most of Europe, into Anatolia and Iran. Sessile oak has been designated the national tree of Wales, where it is also called Welsh oak. It is also considered the Cornish national tree and is referred to as the Cornish oak.
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a species of pine native to Europe and Asia, ranging from Scotland, Ireland and Portugal in the west, east to eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia. In the north of its range, it occurs from sea level to 1,000 m, while in the south of its range it is a high altitude mountain tree, growing at 1,200–2,600 m altitude. It is readily identified by its combination of fairly short, blue-green leaves and orange-red bark.
Willows, sallows, and osiers form the genus Salix, around 400 species of deciduous trees and shrubs, found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called osier, and some broader-leaved species are referred to as sallow (from Old English sealh, related to the Latin word salix, willow). Some willows (particularly arctic and alpine species) are low-growing or creeping shrubs; for example, the dwarf willow (Salix herbacea) rarely exceeds 6 cm (2 in) in height, though it spreads widely across the ground.